Phenylaceton ist eine organische Verbindung mit der chemischen Formel C₆H₅CH₂COCH₃. Es wird auch BMK genannt.



Was ist Benzylmethylketon?

Benzylmethylketone ist eine organische Verbindung mit der chemischen Formel C₆H₅CH₂COCH₃. Es wird auch Benzylmethylketon (BMK) genannt. Benzylmethylketone Diese Substanz wird bei der Herstellung von Methamphetamin und Amphetamin oder einer Vorstufe davon verwendet, wo sie allgemein als P2P bekannt ist. Die CAS-Nummer lautet CAS-Nr .: 103-79-7.

Hauptanwendungen von Benzylmethylketon (BMK)

1-Phenyl-2-propanon (P-2-P), auch bekannt als Benzylmethylketon (BMK), ist eine farblose oder leicht gelbliche Flüssigkeit. Es hat eine dem Wasser ähnliche Dichte und einen angenehmen Duft. Selbst wenn es nur wenige legitime Verwendungen von Benzylmethylketon (BMK) gibt, beispielsweise bei der Herstellung des Arzneimittels Propylhexedrin, wird Benzylmethylketon (BMK) am häufigsten als illegale Verbindung verwendet. Tatsächlich wird Benzylmethylketon (BMK) durch klassische Methoden wie Gaschromatographie, NMR oder HPLC identifiziert.

These methods are expensive, time-consuming and require the presence of trained operators. It is obvious that a new, simple and fast process has to be developed urgently, with which traces of benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be detected. In this work, a novel chemically synthesized benzyl methyl ketone BMK derivative was used that is covalently linked to an immunological carrier to produce antibodies against the benzyl methyl ketone BMK molecules.

A fluorescence polarization based bioassay was developed using the prepared anti-BMK antibodies and the BMK derivative. The assay shows interesting analytical performance with a detection limit of less than 100 nM and a nearly linear response of up to 600 nM. benzylmethylketone

Interestingly, the proposed assay could be performed with a custom portable instrument set and used by untrained personnel at user-defined boundaries and checkpoints, or for rapid sampling. benzylmethylketone

Materials and Methods Benzyl methyl ketone
All reagents were of the highest commercially available grade and were used as received. 1- [3- (Dimethylamino) -propyl] -3-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC), bovine serum albumin (BSA; fraction V), carboxymethoxylamine hemihydrochloride, benzyl methyl ketone (BMK), EAH Sepharose 4B resin and buffer were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich , The fluorescent probe CF488A was purchased from Biotium Inc. Schleicher & Schuell nitrocellulose transfer membrane protons and Amersham Biosciences ECL detection reagents were used in Western Blot experiments. Goat polyclonal against rabbit IgG HRP conjugate (secondary antibody) was from Abcam. The NMR spectra of the benzyl methyl ketone BMK derivative were recorded on a Varian Gemini 200 (200 MHz).

Synthesis of (1-methyl-2-phenylethylideneaminooxy) acetic acid
Benzyl methyl ketone (99% Sigma Aldrich, 612 mL, 4.56 mmol) was refluxed with ten equivalents of o-carboxymethoxylamine hemihydrochloride (99% Sigma Aldrich, 5.00 g, 45.7 mmol) IN6 mL pyridine-H2O-methanol (1: 1: 4) for 2 h. The reaction was followed by thin layer chromatography (n-hexane-ethyl acetate 8: 2 + HCOH drops). Pyridine and others by toluene Tilling from a Rotavapor wereremoved solvent. The product of the reaction was resuspended in 5 ml H 2 O at pH ed 9.00 bases and washed with NaOH with 3 × 10 ml dichloromethane. Then the aqueous phase was acidified with HCl to pH 3.0 and the product was extracted in 3 ml of 15 dichloromethane. The solvent was dried over NaSO4 and vacuum distilled to oily product leavean. To remove reaction by-products and the excess of carboxymethoxylamine,

Synthesis of BSA Conjugate (BMK-BSA)
In order to avoid interference by the carrier protein in the detection of polyclonal antibodies, BMK oxime was conjugated to serum albumin (BSA). The following procedure was used: 0.484 mmol BMK oxime was dissolved in ethanol and mixed with an aqueous solution of 4.84 mmol EDC. The solution was diluted to 840 ml with 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6 and incubated for 20 min at room temperature. Finally, the solution was incubated with 4.84 nM BSA, which was dissolved in 160 ml of 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 6.

The reaction mixture was incubated with constant stirring at room temperature and then dialyzed for 0.5 days at pH 7.4 for 0.5 days with 10 ml of phosphate buffer, the buffers being changed daily. Antibody Production and IgG Purification A rabbit was immunized by a standard protocol by intradermal injection. After the immunization period, the rabbit was killed and its blood collected and centrifuged to separate the blood cells from the serum. A 2.0 ml sample of rabbit serum was diluted 1: 1 in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 7.0 (binding buffer) and applied to 0.5 ml of resin protein A Sepharose ™ 4 FastFlow (GE Healthcare).

The IgG fraction was purified according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The IgG fraction was eluted with glycine (0.1 M) at pH 2.8 and immediately buffered with 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 8.8. Elution of IgG proteins was monitored by absorbance at 1/4278 nm and SDS-PAGE was performed to evaluate the purity of the samples (data not shown).

Precursor to amphetamine and methamphetamine 
BMK and its precursors
Benzylmethylketone (BMK) seizures steadily declined. In response to the stringent controls that prevent the BMK from distracting, resourceful producers of benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) have been making use of other substances for some years – the so-called “precursors”.

Despite these developments, there has recently been evidence that benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) may itself become a major precursor again. China reported the seizure of almost 5,500 liters of benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) in 2013, even though it had not been on the market for several years, and it is assumed that the seized benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) was destined for Spain (INCB, 2015a).

At the end of March 2015, Polish law enforcement agencies in Warsaw discovered 7 000 liters of benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) shipped from China via Germany to Poland. The destination was declared to be a company in the Czech Republic. In the subsequent study, compounds were made to an amphetamine production site in the Netherlands (Europol, 2015e). benzylmethylketone

Benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) can be made from other chemicals, eg. from phenylacetic acid (PAA) and either acetic or acetic anhydride as well as on the so-called nitropropenroute using benzaldehyde and nitroethane (Krawczyk, 2005) and in the past large quantities of a white powder known as “BMK bisulfite adduct” from Russia were seized (Europol, 2009). benzylmethylketone

One of the most significant developments in the history of benzyl methyl ketone (BMK) has been the discovery that it can be made from alpha-phenylacetoacetonitrile (APAAN), an innovation likely caused by the unpredictable availability of other precursors. benzylmethylketone

Since the first identification of this development in 2009, APAAN has become an increasingly important precursor and is imported mainly from China to Europe (sometimes misclassified as other products or substances) and converted into BMK conversion laboratories with large amounts of acids. In 2013, large seizures of APAAN were made in Europe, notably 36 tonnes in the Netherlands and 5.4 tonnes in Belgium. In Poland, a laboratory for the conversion from APAAN to BMK was found and 1.4 tonnes of APAAN confiscated (INCB, 2015a). benzylmethylketone

In December 2013, APAAN was planned as a precursor to European legislation, and in October 2014 international control followed. Despite these controls, APAAN continues to be confiscated; In March 2014, the Bulgarian authorities seized almost 1 tonne of APAAN, which had arrived by truck from Turkey and was not declared as “soluble dyes” (INCB, 2015a). Seizure data indicate that large quantities of APAAN were stored prior to the introduction of controls in Europe. Therefore, BMA from APAAN continues to be widely used by OCGs for amphetamine production (see Figure 6.7).


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